Charles Danforth of The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado USA, details galactic density wave principles in The Origins of Spiral Arms.

 Magnetohydrodynamic density waves in a galactic disk system of stars and gas are further researched by Lou and Fan (Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Volume 2, Issue 2, May 1997, Pages 59-64 View Abstract).

 Anthony Peratt has focused on plasma astrophysics (Plasma and the Universe: Large Scale Dynamics, Filamentation, and Radiation, The Plasma Universe) researching it's role in galaxy morphology and other functions.


The density wave phenomenon observed in the expanding and oscillating films are closely related to many  astrophysical structures. 



                                                                                                                                           Arp 74









                                                                    Arp 325






                                                          Arp 177



                                                      primitive bubble vortex structure            BX442 early galaxy

Other common features in vibrating bubble films include ejection of nuclei or formation of satellites both transient and stable, suggesting ejection of anomalous redshifted quasars from galaxies as related to work by Halton Arp Formation of Structure in the Universe. Anomalous redshifts are the result of plasma/current differentials (Ari Brynjolfsson) in the oscillating density nodes of the local galactic system.  




Other modes of ejection include rotating densities that evolve rings and other simple fluid structure proceeding systematic ejection.


Ring galaxies, which suggest an unknown astrophysical process that is related to black holes and dark matter with no observable properties. 



Satellites of active bubble nuclei in an oscillating field are similar to optically distorted quasars.


               Electric fields surrounding charged point-like particles                                                        Galaxies

Orbiting bubble nuclei 


This bubble model of astrophysical fluid dynamics is based on two forces, oscillation and/or expansion. From the experiments, it can also be hypothesized that a polygonal field is required for some phenomena to occur and polygonal galactic environments are not unusual.


                                                                       Typical vibrating pentagonal bubble film activity at 28 hz


Hypothetical polygonal oscillating fields of AM 2154


Some potential sources of internal or external oscillation are: magnetohydrodynamics, cosmic Birkeland currents or field-aligned currents, large-scale magnetic cusp activity, collisions and cymatic-type effects, a principle discovered by Hans Jenny The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations by Hans Jenny.


                                                                                                                        Antennae                                                         Stephan's Quintet

Multiple galaxies or systematic nuclei, which ordinarily may appear colliding, vibrate at various resonant frequencies. Other factors determining the formation and evolution of the system are inflow and densities of matter or plasma.

The Hubble tuning-fork diagram is limited to understanding sequences since fluid dynamic morphology is based on oscillation modes. Galaxies evolve many types of structures, which can originate in environments beyond or without field currents.

A barred spiral can easily change to an elliptical and continue to evolve other characteristics based on accretion and mass accumulation. If the galaxy oscillation modes are phased by a variable frequency signal of any source, classification of structure is complex. Many peculiar galaxies appear to be evolving from mixed oscillations in varied sequences, which disrupt the gravitational density forming tangled or distorted patterns. 

Regular galaxy kinematics occur when no oscillation is present. Galactic systems contain both oscillating and non-oscillating components. If the universe or local field was not expanding, galaxies or clusters of galaxies would not exhibit complexity. No fluid dynamic qualities evolve from contracting or static bubble films.

Sources of expansion are relativistic or cosmological. Cymatic-like or systematic vibration at resonant frequencies may contribute to expansion activity by reducing gravitational effects. There is potential for very large polygonal boundaries as weak magnetic fields from currents in space expand and tessellate while focusing cusps oscillate the nuclear system.

Note: Supergranules in the solar photosphere are other types of polygonal cells in the space environment. Hannes Alfven correctly predicted electromagnetic/hydrodynamic and cellular/filamentary features of the plasma universe.




Plasma/current magnetic containment schematic of galaxy

The complexity of the fluid model is expressed entirely by the mechanisms of the space plasma environment. Contiguous electric field currents in geometric and polygonal configurations provide the magnetic force to contain and oscillate the system. This model conforms to observations of oscillating magnetic field densities in radio galaxies.


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